February 28, 2020

The Horizons We Never Knew

From great concepts to full realization. From fan favorite to full destruction. Horizons at EPCOT Center dazzled visitors to Walt Disney World even if it remained without an update until its untimely demolition. Imagineer Herb Ryman created these two pieces of concept art for the groundbreaking, and some would say the true heart, of the park's Future World

The concept art at the top of the article was not what was built. The entry point was not opened but more streamlined with a full roof line that stretched across the, um, horizon. Nor was it gold instead a brilliant gleaming white, fully in synch with the park's aesthetic. 

Construction couldn't happen soon enough- and it wasn't until my second visit to my favorite Florida park that I was able to ride this epic attraction. Back in the day, pavilions were often much more than a two minute thrill ride. The artists who designed them took the time to fully bring you into the story. This meant well thought out attractions that did not rely on backstory told on television screens to set what guests were about to experience.

Once I did ride, Horizons was an attraction that I had to experience ride over and over again! The image above, from the Horizons Tribute Group, comes from a show scene that dazzled me with its artsy, edgy presentation of what we thought life in the future would be like. And the Omnimax theater was every bit as spectacular! It wasn't just the visuals but also the musical soundtrack that took us on incredible journeys. 

One of Disney's official photos.

Photo by the incredible WDWMagic site.

The ending of the attraction was unexpected. So was the attraction's demise. The demolition of the attraction signaled the end of an era. One never to be seen again in this park. It was a sad day for lovers of this forward thinking pavilion- and for lovers of the park as well.

Just a slice of the EPCOT Center that once was! 

We will never know what an updated attraction would encompass. The original plan was to plus and enhance each of these iconic adventures, not to toss them away. Oh, the joys of what we will never know! Such is life.

Robert McCall's giant Horizons mural.

Among others, Progress City has a great series on the history of the attraction. You can find the multi-part series here. There's even more to read on this post

The Horizons poster we never knew!
Back when it was to be called Century 3!

Even Disney acknowledges that park fans love this attraction. Here's their article on "13 Reasons Disney Park Fans Still Love Horizons". Need I say more? Well, ok, one thing. I do not expect they will ever build a Future World pavilion as elegant and massive as this one! Particularly under this new leadership...

(Art copyright The Walt Disney Company.)

February 26, 2020

Palette Cleanser

There's drama everywhere I turn! This morning as I was praying, my thoughts turned to a very happy day. I was out in the middle of nowhere exploring a new region in my travels, and I happened upon a stunning field of mountain poppies. This incredible memory brought a smile to my face. Here is a piece of art by Marion Rose that captures that sense of pure joy. 

February 25, 2020

Bob Chapek Named Disney CEO Effective Immediately

Just minutes ago, Bob Chapek was named Disney CEO, replacing Robert Iger. Full story found here. Even more details about the change in Executive Officer and statements from the men about the transition are found here.

Sexualization of Children Needs to Stop

It's time for some common sense. The ongoing sexualization of children needs to stop, but unfortunately some artists are using creative freedom to target children. The latest of Billboard magazine's lead articles this Tuesday feature Nina West (of RuPaul's Drag Race) and her desire to create the "Drag Alphabet". 

In an interview with the artist, Nina shares, "I have wanted to build a really solid foundation of a relationship in children's spaces for drag, and for drag entertainment to enter those spaces," she says. "So what a better way to revisit this idea and this topic than to start with the alphabet?" 

Let's be honest: Parenting is a way in which adults use their time with their own children to impart values near and dear to them. Issues relating to sexuality and expression of it should be handled by the parents of children, not the media, and certainly not the government. However, media giants under the guise of artistic freedom have decided to break those boundaries. Disney has done it before with the live action Beauty and the Beast, Pixar is now doing it with Onward, and it's only the beginning. Anyone in the industry can tell you their ranks include those who prey on children and young teens. Where is the line drawn?

This is not just an inclusive reflection of our society. For those so inclined, this type of media is also a form of grooming- preparing children to be sexualized and used by adults for their own gratification. 

If the #MeToo movement has taught us anything, it's taught us that it's time to stop allowing this madness to continue.

This ongoing assault against children needs to stop. The producers of this garbage are leaving us no choice but to make hard decisions.  Who will lead the way?

February 24, 2020

More from Kenya

 From shots from our friends on safari. Take a look at these incredible photographs!

 According to our friends, the landscapes are beautiful, but rugged and the weather and atmosphere is harsh. Contrasting that are the gentle spirits and hearts of the people who live there.

As I said in my earlier post with more photos from Kenya- go out and see the real world! The Disney World is full of delights, but aside from the real animals in Animal Kingdom, it is all a fantasy. The real world, a marvelous place showcasing God's creativity and power, is one worth exploring.

February 22, 2020

Struggling with Our Disney Park Expectations

Does Disney Imagineering ever meet our expectations? Or do they routinely promise what they don't deliver? Either way, we Disney fans are quite the group! We rightfully expect top quality in the parks- especially at those prices which increase every year- and if we had our way, we'd get cutting edge, Asia park quality attractions every year. When they do deliver what they promise, it's usually spectacular.  See Rise of the Resistance at both coasts Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge or Pandora's amazing Flight of Passage at Disney's Animal Kingdom. But more often than not in the last decade or so, the American parks have been shortchanged. (Curious about the last decade or so and what they built? Check out this article.)

We are frustrated when we do not get what we want and when we get what we hate. Pixar Pier anyone? Whether it is cheap off-the-shelf attractions like those at California Adventure, recycled parades, or the endless character intrusion into attractions where they do not belong, it's a no win for everyone. We get rightfully angry at half-hearted commitment to quality when maintenance stinks or service falters at Walt Disney World, when buildings are left to rot at Disneyland or attractions open but can't operate at capacity when thousands of tourists come expertly to ride the latest and greatest. Where's the integrity in this?

But to be fair, let me turn the tables and say we are not the only ones who demand it all and yet do not deliver what we promise.

Avengers Campus looks to fall way short
of what it should be.

The challenge before me is to give my all. As a believer in Jesus Christ, I took from him the gift of eternal life through His sacrifice by promising I'd give up my life to gain His. And yet I find I compromise or forget about it at times. Don't you?

I'm telling you, Francis Chan's book Crazy Love, is knocking me on my rear and causing me to reevaluate what it means to be a Christ follower. Do I really live like I am giving it all up for God- or am I playing games with it. I can fool others, even myself, but not the Creator of the universe. Here's the clear scriptural challenge before me:

"If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for me will save it."

Jesus is calling us to a life of personal, daily sacrifice and devotion to Him and His purposes. He demands it all from those who call on his name and expect eternal life upon his return. This isn't philosophy here- this is relationship. Christianity is not a set of rules, and "believing" in Jesus is not the answer. Believing and obeying Jesus and living for Him daily shows our devotion to him, proving we are truly his followers. It is a high price and a high calling.

We are going to be so surprised to discover that giving God a small piece of our lives didn't do the trick. We think we can give him head knowledge but live and act as if He doesn't require more of us. He wants all of us not just the parts that we want to give him. Ouch! I fall short here- and I need his grace and forgiveness to keep going.

The great apostle Paul puts it in perspective: "In the same way, count yourselves dead to sin but alive to God in Christ Jesus. Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body do that you obey its evil desires. Do not offer the parts of your body to sin, as instruments of wickedness, but rather offer yourselves to God, as those who have been brought from death to life; and offer the parts of your body to him as instruments of righteousness". This means discipling ourselves in how we talk, what we do, and what we choose to think about. In other words, a radical change in our life as we now belong to Jesus and His purposes.

So, I ask those of you who claim to believe in Jesus, calling yourselves Christians- Where's the follow-through? Where's the integrity? Where's the passion? Lest you think I am harsh, these are the same questions God asks of all of us- the very ones I am asking myself these days.

(Concept art copyright The Walt Disney Comapny.)

February 21, 2020

Friends Reunion Coming!

It's about time! America's favorite Friends returns to HBO Max. Matthew Perry, Courteney Cox, Lisa Kudrow, Matt LeBlanc, Jennifer Anniston, and David Schwimmer will get back into the swing of things with what must be their final adventure. Cannot wait!

February 20, 2020

Lessons Learned from Watching The Imagineering Story

You don't have to be a wise old sage who was blessed to be around at the opening of Disneyland to understand what makes great park attractions and which philosophies to toss and which to keep.

After viewing the excellent Disney+ series, The Imagineering Story, my youngest daughter shared these bits of gleaned theme park wisdom:

"Important lessons: Leadership at Disney is a two person job. The creative and the risk adverse financial guy. Second, always say yes to Tony Baxter. And when you’re in a bind, resurrect one of his old ideas. Third, dry your concrete and asphalt several days before opening people! And write something down!"

Well said, very well said.

Like the concept art above? It's from an unrealized project by Imagineer Tony Baxter. Want more Discovery Bay? Go here.

(Concept art copyright The Walt Disney Company.)

February 19, 2020

Live from Kenya- A Real Safari

 Here's several reasons why the real world is better than the Disney World- or in this case Disney's Animal Kingdom.

 It's not Kilimanjaro Safaris but instead the real thing, a safari tour of Kenya, out in the open. 

Just moments ago, I received these photos from dear friends who are taking a trip they have long wished to make. A 17 day trip to Kenya and Tanzania where they wanted to take photos and see God's unique creation for themselves. I cannot see these without praising God for His goodness and creativity!

 Walt Disney World offers a somewhat similar experience for those of us that cannot make these types of journeys, and I'm truly thankful! My travel motto is "So many places, so little time and money!" Yet I've been blessed with my job to take trips all over the world.

In order to preserve their privacy, there's no photos of them here. But the shot above, I took a screenshot of so I could zoom in on the musician in the background. Her face (off to the left) was priceless- a look of sheer delight.

Get out there for yourselves, and see the real world! You will never regret giving up a Disney trip for it! Never.

(Photos copyright Mark Taft -on behalf of my friends, who wish to remain anonymous.)

February 18, 2020

To Daddy's Little Girl

Happy Birthday to my daughter, a young woman I am very proud of! Love you!

February 17, 2020

Oui, Paris!

Stumbled across this earlier as I was searching for a totally different photograph. How beautiful is the Eiffel Tower! For a structure that most French hated while it was being built, it certainly has become a beloved symbol of the City of Light.

(Photograph copyright Mark Taft.)

February 15, 2020

The Frozen Port Before Tokyo DisneySea's Fantasy Springs

While Tokyo DisneySea's expansion, named Fantasy Springs, has been delayed by a year, unlike many projects for Disneyland and Walt Disney World, it is not cancelled or delayed to the deadly Coronavirus. The area set aside for it has an interesting history, and the piece of concept art above reveals the original intent of the land: a frozen concept named Glacier Bay

As anyone who has been to the resort will tell you, everything designed for the second park at the Tokyo Disney Resort is representative of the very best work Imagineering.  The Stateside parks are just now beginning to see the same type of excellence as evidenced by Cars Land at California Adventure, Pandora at Animal Kingdom, and both Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge locations. There's much to be said for competition! If you don't think Universal's explosive growth due to adding the excellent Harry Potter attractions isn't part of the reason for renewed investment, you are mistaken. Thank you, Harry!

A snowy port that looks more than a bit like Port Discovery. 

When Tokyo DisneySea was first imagined, a frozen port of sorts made the short list of lands. The icy terrain even appeared on an early map of the park. (The top image. Click on it for a very large size.) For various reasons, it never made the final cut. The exact concept was also under consideration for Hong Kong Disneyland, which as we know would certainly have benefitted from something unique early on. It could have even changed initial perceptions of the park.


Nothing gets discarded when it comes to unbuilt Imagineering concepts. This Asian icy wonderland was once planned to be home to a variety of winter activities that could be enjoyed year round: jet skiing, an ice rink, and an indoor thrilling roller coaster. Let's be honest, here. In this new Disney world where intellectual properties and more importantly, potential for massive merchandizing, drives the company, a port without a connection would rarely be built. Even in Tokyo, they exist but are a rarity.

These three concepts above were created by Favilli Studios, one of the relatively new players in the theme park business...and the main creator of plans for the infamous Dubai Disneyland. Of course, to date, that park has not been built. I imagine it never will be. The planned mega resort for theme park lovers has had poor attendance and low if any profits since opening. (I broke the news on this proposed Middle East Magic Kingdom back in 2014. My detailed  look at it begins here.) 

Frozen instead of icy.

Removing the Glacier Bay concept but bringing an icy slant to Tokyo's expansion is our lovable snowman Olaf and his creator Elsa. With two strongly marketable characters- one for girls and one for boys- it's a bankable plan for the accounting books. 

For fans of Imagineering's most innovative work, Fantasy Springs will be a win. The new port will have several major E Ticket attractions based on Frozen, Tangled, and Peter Pan, all using innovative new ride systems, plenty of unique shopping, and a now requisite must-do restaurant experience a la Be Our Guest at Florida's New Fantasyland

Classic characters and beloved stories. That is the new direction for all of the Disney Parks- even if in some cases- like Epcot and Animal Kingdom- it's a big mistake. That said, leave it to Oriental Land Company and the Tokyo Disney Resort to get the best Imagineering work. With or without Disney characters.

(Art copyright The Walt Disney Company and Favilli Studios.)

February 12, 2020

Calling All Kings and Queens

It's time to party! This one is bigger and better than anything you can get at Disneyland or even at the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World! It's 2020's Night to Shine, a truly magical evening put together by folks who want to show love to a very special group of people. Check out this video:

How could you make a difference in your community? How could you invest in someone else? We all have a role to play.

February 8, 2020

California Adventure at 19: What's Behind and What's Ahead

According to those insiders on the great WDWMagic boards, a Coco attraction is in the works- a sure fire addition to the Disneyland Resort's second park, California Adventure. In a park with cultural festivals that can, at times, make it feel like a poor man's World Showcase from Epcot, it's a pretty good fit! The Mexican cultural had made a huge impact on California with everything from music, to food, to politics being affected. 

Yes, today marks 19 years ago that California Adventure opened to a collective thud once the public discovered all the shortcuts Disney took when building Anaheim's second Disney park. Over the years, they may have learned their lesson, although you wouldn't know it if looking at some of the most recent ill-conceived ideas that made it past wiser folks. 

What could be coming in addition to Avengers Campus, the Marvel focused mini-land debuting this summer? Where's the next big addition? Well, we can forecast where it won't be! The lovely Buena Vista Street just doesn't have the room, except perhaps for a small theater, and we know California Adventure does not need any additional films in its lineup. 

It won't be Cars Land, as that franchise is as dead as can be. The area is some of Imagineering's best work of late- on par with Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge and Pandora- but land is at a premium, so any expansion would not be a good use of space. Hollywoodland is a hot mess which needs a full overhaul, something the suits won't currently invest in. Grizzly Peak's beautiful but constricted by space as well, leaving the incredibly disjoined and ill-conceived Pixar Pier, where at least Coco somewhat fits. A beautiful Mexican style area would be a nice addition, but this is Bob Chapek's DCA, so that's out.  I'd venture that something like Emotional Whirlwind is on its way.

What about what came before? While the future of the park looks rather muddled, the past was also a mess of a bad decision after another until Robert Iger admitted it was a "brand withdrawal", paving the way for Buena Vista Street, Cars Land, and other enhancements. 

With over 400 articles on this blog about California Adventure, there's a lot more to read. But how did the park end up the mess it is now? Let's start by looking at the beginning...

Looking at the concepts for the park version 1.0, the painters brush was unintentionally (or intentionally) deceiving! Secondly, due to the cost-cutting measures of the leadership of the time, it reminds us what poor foundations the Imagineers were stuck working with.

As we look at concept art from the first incarnation of California Adventure, let's compare what we saw in the preview center versus what the park really looked like to an opening day guest. Many visitors, myself included, expressed displeasure at what was found at this new park. So did the media and for a good reason.

Let's begin with the park entrance. The tile murals flanking the sides are really well done. The CALIFORNIA letters are a unique touch and both together clearly communicate this is not Disneyland. It's not a bad design, there's just no follow through. When the Disney advertising experts have to create a fictionalized version of the entrance for promotional purposes, this should be the first clue that the park has some serious problems and design flaws.

It is what we encounter once walking past the turnstiles that shouts "bargain basement" design. Looking right through the gates brings a very ordinary looking area, nothing to entice a visitor who is considering a day at this park.

The Sunshine Plaza reigns as the ugliest and least original park entrance area in Disney's history. Yes, this includes the even less imaginative Walt Disney Studios in Paris! Framed by an out of place replica of the Golden Gate Bridge, the environment matches a low budget outlet mall, appropriately setting the stage for what is found in most of the park.

The Sun fountain is an interesting structure, but it really belongs in an open garden at a hotel, in the midst of a walkway from the parking area or just someplace else. Not large enough in scale to impress, not a fitting centerpiece for the park. In some ways, it is appropriate. This is big and flashy with a contemporary edge- but it lacks substance.

Moving on, let's head to the Hollywood Pictures Backlot. At first glance, it is a pretty Disneyesque area, a more playful version of the main drag at Disney's Hollywood Studios. The centerpiece, and clearly the highlight at opening, is Disney Animation.

Frankly, this is one impressive showcase! Beyond the park's signature flight simulator attraction, this gem is filled with the kind of care in execution that should have been found all over the park. The Animation Courtyard has an impressive layout that dazzles, and The Sorcerer's Workshop, including Beast's Library, feels like a walk-thru dark ride, drawing guests in further and further inside. It's easy to spend an hour here just watching the transformation in the library. Well done, Imagineers! In a nod to the Studios old working animation area, The Animation Academy truly provides a fun and informative demonstration of the art of the wonderful and ageless 2-D process. (Below is altogether different concept for Disney Animation.)

Beyond this great little attraction is where the troubles begin. Wandering around the rest of this land, guests discover raw steel and bland walls lie behind the great looking storefronts. Even the seemingly impressive Hyperion Theater is really just one great optical illusion. Just a big box but one with state-of-the-art facilities inside. However, it is a facility with no lobby and no restrooms!

Nearby, the past its prime MuppetVision 3D show is found. Not too thrilling an idea or presentation. It's a quick retread from Florida to save some cash- and an attempt by Disney to relaunch a very tired but once charming franchise.

The worst of the (Back) lot, however, is the only dark ride found here in 2001. In one of the oddest moves ever for a Disney park, the Imagineers designed and built the strange Superstar Limo attraction. The building housing the ride is at once quirky and likable to some degree, but the experience inside is just plain bizarre. Hosted by an on-screen agent who seems like someone you'd never let your children be alone with, the limo ride takes you through a tongue in cheek and trendy Hollywood filled with animatronics of "B" list celebrities from the Disney Studio. It quickly became the laughing stock of the theme park industry and a symbol of everything wrong with California Adventure. Less than a year from its premier, this ride quickly disappeared forever.

In a bit of poor planning, the Backlot's main street becomes a dead end, so let's cross back over to Condor Flats, a recreation of a California desert airfield.

Condor Flats effectively marks the entrance to The Golden State district, the portion of the park that truly strengthens the California theme. The airstrip is a small area to be sure, but it houses the park's signature attraction, Soarin' Over California. All the quibbles of the queue and its minimal theming aside, this film experience is the emotional heart of the park. Californians are rightfully proud of their state and its stunning diversity of landscapes. The photography is exhilarating, the musical score heightens the mood, and the ride mechanism impresses to thrilling results. It is the single standout attraction in the park. This crowd pleaser should not have been duplicated at any other resort. Period.

The true icon of this park, and one that for the first time is positioned to please hotel guests instead of park visitors, is Grizzly Peak. No expense was spared in creating an authentic and beautiful mountain environment. The rockwork created by the Imagineers ranks with the best of their efforts, including Big Thunder Mountain and the younger Expedition Everest. The landscaping is superb. The network of waterfalls, winding paths and viewing areas makes this part of the Grizzly Peak Recreation Area the most beautiful location of the entire Disneyland Resort. 

The setting for the Grizzly River Run is spectacular and "E" ticket worthy. However obvious short cuts have been taken with this attraction, starting with the design of the watercraft. The promotional poster below shows a whitewater excursion with an authentically styled raft. Somewhere between concept and execution, the attraction ended up with standard theme park fare circular rafts. Certainly the same company that could imagine and engineer leading edge ride systems for other attractions could find a way to build an authentic raft that was safe while providing the desired thrills!

Further cost-cutting took place by the exclusion of animatronic animals. Every other nature-based attraction designed by Disney uses them to good effect. From slow moving rides like The Jungle River Cruise to the high speed adventures of Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, there is simply no excuse for their absence except budgetary restraints. It's still a very fun attraction with terrific views of the park (and the less than beautiful city of Anaheim), but it could be so much more than it is.

Guests quickly noticed a trend in this new era Disney park: there may have been discounting on the attraction detail, but no expenses were lost when it came to the shops! California Adventure has some Disneyland quality shopping areas, and the Rushin' River Outfitters (below) is no exception.

Continuing a trend that began with Disneyland itself, the Redwood Creek Challenge Trail is a new take on the original park's Tom Sawyer's Island. Both provide plenty of fun as well as an area where younger visitors can run free. It is a nicely themed playground but not much more.

The limited number of attractions and cutbacks aside, this region of California Adventure provides the immersive environment that Disney guests are accustomed to finding at the parks. If only the rest of the small park had this much charm and care taken with it! The glaring shortcomings are only heightened when we enter into the San Francisco area, one far removed from the Golden Gate Bridge we found at the park entrance.

This tiny little sliver of San Francisco houses only restrooms, leaving guests who expected an elegant area such as New Orleans Square in a state of shock. In place of a fully realized cityscape, we find Golden Dreams, the film tribute to the history of the state. Originally envisioned as Circle of Hands, it was intended to be a heartwarming multimedia presentation of the brave men and women who settled and worked the land. Budget cuts again derailed the project. We are now left with a small scale but warm and politically correct vision of history. Unintentionally, this show is also one of the best arguments for Disney to stop using its a film stars as part of their attractions.

As we move around the bend, the beautiful Golden Vine Winery comes into view. Of course, so does the Pacific Wharf food court, Bountiful Valley Farm, and the surprising Paradise Pier.

The winery area charms guests with a sophistication not found elsewhere. Of course, like Napa Valley itself, we find a couple of pricy restaurants among the park's vineyard. Attractions? Oh yes, Seasons of the Vine is here- yet another film, this one highlighting the process of the art of winemaking from field to table. It is a slice of Epcot Center, an undiscovered gem. The music and photography perfectly capturing the area.

Across the way on this side of the bay is the Pacific Wharf. What could have been a wonderful setting for some California themed Disney attractions is reduced to mostly a food court with a couple of bakery tours using short films to tell the manufacturing story. The educational aspects of the park are important, however, they needed to be balanced out with traditional Disney attractions to justify the full ticket price.

Butting up to the Wharf is Bountiful Valley Farm, showcasing the agricultural impact of the state. Aside from yet another film, this one a clone of an additional 3D attraction from Florida, guests to the area are left without much to do except viewing tractors and watching a quite unimaginative fountain. In the age of "Bargain Basement" Imagineering, it's Disney storytelling at it's sorry worst.

Controversial. Cheap and tacky. Off the shelf. Not what Walt would have wanted. Paradise Pier is all these things and more. And less. Much, much less.

Once guests had experienced the limited number of attractions in the other areas and the truly good live entertainment to be found, many headed toward Paradise Pier hoping to round out their day at Disney's recreation of a seaside amusement area.

The California Screamin' coaster stands tall over the area, and it is a roller coaster ride very worthy of a Disney park. Unfortunately, it is just a coaster- no great theming to be found here. No journey to outer space, no wildest ride in the wilderness, just an exposed track reaching for the sky. It is fun, day or night, but there are no Disney touches to be found except the giant glaring Mickey head. In this new fangled park, big, loud and obvious has mostly replaced the charming nuances of designers from earlier generations. 

The rest of Paradise Pier is fleshed out with carnival games, kiddie attractions, swing rides, and an impressive Ferris Wheel. There's truly nothing magical or Disney here, yet the advertising department thought this was one of the best areas to show to promote the new park. What were they thinking? The public was not fooled, and the executives at Disney were left with an embarrassment on their hands.

In the next segment of the story (link below), we discover Disney got serious about fixing the park.  Starting with the areas that guests complained about the most, the makeover worked. The entrance to the park was reworked into the lovely Buena Vista Street. The Pier changed but was still more or less a carnival. Cars Land drew the crowds, but Hollywoodland remained full of DCA 1.0 design.

What can we learn from the "Bargain Basement Imagineering"? Concept art can be deceiving, and budgets can be reduced. Disney has learned some important lessons from trying to fool us as they did in 2001. What would they do next?

What to read more as they changed direction? Go to Imagineering a New Dream, my article that begins here. More history, more stories, more concept art.

(All art copyright The Walt Disney Company.)